Abstract. This study, from an intergenerational equity perspective, focuses on the problematic relationship between the dynamics of demographic transformations and natural resources depletion. Profound demographic shifts in the Arab region during recent decades have exerted great pressure on strategic natural resources of vital importance for the development of society, especially water and energy. Arab countries are called more than ever to overcome the deficiencies of the adopted development models, by explicitly affirming the rights of future generations and establishing practical and urgent mechanisms to guarantee them. This requires the adoption of a holistic and forward-looking approach that evokes the economic, environmental and legal dimensions, and considers successful international experiences, as well as the particularities of Arab society as well.