The Middle East and North Africa is one of the world’s most rapidly transforming regions, politically, economically, demographically and environmentally. Despite largely declining total fertility rates, the momentum of population growth will lead the region to surpass China in total population by 2090. Land degradation, water stress and urbanisation trends will also have significant impact upon the future development of this region. In contending with the looming social, ecological and climatic transformations, MENA policymakers will need to work effectively to both comprehend the multi-faceted dynamics of these challenges and seize opportunities. This study outlines the key demographic and economic trends and transformations underway across MENA countries, and examines the possible implications.