The world population, estimated by the United Nations at 7.4 billion, has never been so large as it is today. Will it go on growing or will it level off in the coming decades? Drawing on his contribution to the 2016 Vigie Report, updated to take account of the UN's 2015 revision of the world population forecast, Alain Parant takes stock here of the main future demographic trends. Though, as he stresses, world population growth is less intense than in the past, it remains a deep-seated trend. It is driven by the developing countries and is a product, among other things, of increasing average life expectancy and a fertility rate generally higher than “generation replacement” level.